Frequently Asked Questions
I have a friend/relative who is a refugee. Can you tell me more about resettlement options in Canada ?
Once a refugee has been registered with UNHCR in their country of asylum, local resettlement staff can determine who is in need of resettlement and can then submit their case to various resettlement countries. Ultimately, it is the resettlement country that decides whether or not a person will be admitted into the country. The decision on who will be referred for resettlement is made by the UNHCR office in the refugee’s country of asylum and not by UNHCR in Canada. You may wish to consult Citizenship and Immigration Canada for information on Canada’s immigration options, including family reunification or Private Sponsorship of Refugees programs.
If you are inquiring about your refugee or resettlement case and you are currently outside of Canada, please contact your nearest UNHCR office. The decision of who will be referred for resettlement is made by the local office and not by UNHCR in the Canadian office.
UNHCR Canada is unable to provide you with any case-specific information.
Resettlement is one of three long-term solutions—in addition to voluntary repatriation and local integration—to help refugees rebuild their lives. Resettlement is offered to vulnerable refugees who cannot return home or remain in their country of asylum. Only a small number of refugees are submitted for resettlement consideration and very few countries participate in the resettlement programs. Canada is one of UNHCR’s leading resettlement partners, welcoming thousands of refugees each year. More information is available on our international website.
The internationally recognized legal definition of refugee was set out in the 1951 Refugee Convention as: “A person who, owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality and is unable or, owing to such fear, unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country”.
Refugees are ordinary people who have been forced to flee their homes across national borders because of conflict or human rights abuses. These devastating circumstances often arise suddenly, forcing families to react with urgency to factors beyond their control. There are currently 21.3 million refugees worldwide.
An asylum-seeker is someone who is seeking international protection but has not yet been granted refugee status.
When an individual fleeing conflict or persecution arrives in a new country, they must submit a formal claim for refugee status. This claim is evaluated by the host country, after which asylum seekers may be legally recognized as refugees. In Canada, refugee claims are heard by the Immigration and Refugee Board within 60 days.
A migrant is someone who chooses to leave their country, whether for economic reasons or to search for a better life. They can also return to their home country whenever they like. A refugee is someone who is forced to flee their home due to persecution, war, or violence. They can’t return home until it’s safe, something that often doesn’t happen for years, or even decades.
A stateless person is someone who does not have a nationality of any country. People can become stateless for a number of reasons, and some people are born stateless. Without a nationality, individuals can struggle to realise basic needs like healthcare, education, voting or employment and their fundamental human rights may be compromised.
Some stateless persons are also refugees. However, not all refugees are stateless, and many persons who are stateless have never crossed an international border.
Some of the reasons for statelessness include discrimination against minority groups, gaps in nationality law, the emergence of new states, or changes in borders. Today, at least 10 million people around the world are denied a nationality.
Like refugees, internally displaced persons (IDPs) are ordinary people forced to flee their homes due to war or persecution. However, unlike refugees, IDPs remain in their own country.
In 2015, 40.8 million people were displaced within their own country as a result of conflict and violence. In Syria, at least 40 per cent of the population (7.6 million people) has been displaced —the highest number in the world.
Unlike refugees, internally displaced persons are not protected under international law because they are legally under the protection of their country’s government—even if that government was the cause of their displacement. IDPs therefore represent one of the world’s most vulnerable groups, and one that UNHCR is committed to assisting.
The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, also known as UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, is the world’s leading organization committed to protecting the rights and well-being of people forced to flee. UNHCR has operated in Canada since 1976.
Around the world, UNHCR has over 9,700 staff on the ground in 126 countries helping refugees and other vulnerable groups with emergency relief, protection, and support as they rebuild their lives. In Canada, UNHCR promotes the highest standards of protection for refugees and asylum-seekers, helps coordinate resettlement opportunities, and supports UNHCR efforts around the globe. Learn more about UNHCR Canada.
A refugee camp is a temporary settlement built to house refugees.
As an example, Za’atari camp in Jordan is the largest refugee camp in the Middle East. It was set up in nine days following huge inflows of refugees from Syria, and now hosts around 81,000 Syrian residents, more than half of whom are children.
UNHCR believes that refugee camps should be a temporary measure. Alternatives to camps, including renting land or private hosting agreements, allow refugees more control over their freedoms and rights, and more options to live with greater dignity, independence and normality as members of the community they live in. Read the UN Policy on Alternatives to Camps.
Conflict in Syria is fueling one of the largest humanitarian crises of our time, with nearly 5 million refugees and 7 million internally displaced persons forced to flee their homes due to violence and civil war.
UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, is leading a coordinated, on-the-ground effort across international borders to protect those in need, alleviate suffering, and provide life-saving humanitarian aid. Read more about UNHCR in Syria.
The Earth’s climate is changing rapidly, causing extreme weather patterns, drought, food scarcity, conflict over water resources, and other grave consequences. It is estimated that natural disasters and climate change force over 22 million people to flee their homes each year.
The terms climate refugee and environmental refugee are often used to refer to these vulnerable persons. However, climate and environmental refugees are not legally recognized under the definitions set out by the 1951 Refugee Convention and although they may need protection and assistance, these people are not eligible for refugee status.
UNHCR has begun an international dialogue to address this “protection gap” through the Advisory Group on Climate Change and Human Mobility. The Paris COP 21 Conclusions Agreements also calls for a task force to “develop recommendations for integrated approaches to avert, minimize and address displacement related to the adverse impacts of climate change”.
Read more about climate refugees in UNHCR Magazine: Issue 3.
The Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada is also known as the IRB. Founded in 1989, it is an independent tribunal established by the Parliament of Canada and responsible for making efficient, fair, decisions on immigration and refugee matters pursuant to the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act (IRPA). Among other responsibilities, the IRB is the decision making body which determines which asylum-seekers will receive refugee status in Canada.
Every year, more than 13,500 people come to Canada and apply for refugee status by making an asylum claim. The Immigration and Refugee Protection Act, the law that governs immigration and refugee matters is the basis for granting refugee status in Canada.
The definition of a refugee is found in the 1951 Convention and incorporated in IRPA. From Immigration Refugee Citizenship Canada: “Convention refugees are people who are outside their home country or the country where they normally live, and who are unwilling to return because of a well-founded fear of persecution based on
- political opinion;
- or membership in a particular social group.”
Once a claim is accepted, an asylum-seeker becomes a recognized refugee, receives the status of “protected person” and can apply to become a permanent resident of Canada.
When an asylum-seeker first comes to Canada, he or she must make a claim for protection to the Canadian government in order to be granted refugee status. During the time when this claim is being evaluated, an asylum-seeker has certain rights. For example, he or she may be eligible to work or study in Canada and receive emergency medical care. All minor children are automatically eligible to attend school. If a claim for protection is successful, asylum seekers are granted “protected persons” status with access to additional benefits.
Some refugees that have made their asylum claim in another country are resettled in Canada. These resettled refugees receive initial assistance (typically provided for up to one year) from either the federal government, the Province of Quebec, or private sponsors. Resettled refugees become permanent residents and can eventually become citizens of Canada. Get help resettling in Canada.